Porsche 911 993 (4th Generation) Research Hub (1994 - 1998)
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In 1993 the Porsche 993 Carrera was presented to the general public as the successor for the 964. The Porsche 993 was the fourth generation of the Porsche 911 and easily the most loved iteration and the last of the aircooled Porsche 911s. It was more sophisticated and durable than the Type 964 that came before it, the significant technical advances in the underpinnings created a more civilized car and a greatly improved handling experience too. The 993 retained the 3.6 L m64/01 engine from the 964 but it was re-designated as M64/05.
The work on the Type 993 began in 1989 when design work started on the 964's successor. Tony Hatter was in charge of the design team that would take the 964 design, revise the flow and shape, and release the refined and balanced 993 to immediate acclaim. It was (and still is) the prettiest 911 design ever. This new design featured the iconic 911 silhouette but showcased a more unibody design comprised of updated exterior panels, a lowered stance, more flared wheel arches, and fully integrated smooth front and rear bumper designs. The now steel body shell was wide-styled to accommodate a new multi-link suspension. The car became lower and the new elliptic headlamps, as well as fully integrated bumpers gave the 993 a fresh look, without losing the identity of the 911.
The 993 Porsche 911 Carrera was introduced in Coupé and Cabriolet form in 1994. The Targa version followed for the 1996 model year. A year later came the Carrera 4, again in both Coupé and Cabriolet body styles. The Targa variant came in 1996 and featured an all-new retractable glass roof. The 993 Turbo coupe was introduced in 1995 and featured wider rear wheel arches, a fixed wing in the rear that housed the intercoolers and revised front and rear bumper moldings. It also got 408 bhp from its 3.6 liter twin turbo flat 6. The 993 Turbo S was offered in 1997 as a high-spec model and got 424 bhp. The model 993 Carrera 4S and Carrera S were offered in 1996 and 1997 respectively. Both models got the Turbo-look wide body and lower stance but were much like the standard Carrera internally. In 1995 and 1996, Porsche offered a 3.8 liter, 300 bhp, lightweight variant called the Carrera RS. This version was outfitted with a stationary rear wing, front flaps and 18-inch aluminum wheels. The interior featured racing seats, basic Spartan door panels, no rear seats and minimal noise reduction effort. The model Carrera RS Clubsport, a further variant of the RS, was a more extreme version with welded roll cage, a deeper chin spoiler and a larger rear wing. The top of the 993 range was the GT2 (initially sold as the 911 GT). It was Porsche's twin turbo track star, built for the road to meet homologation requirements. Due to the rules passed by the racing sanctions, all-wheel drive cars were prohibited from competition, consequently the model GT2 was only available in a rear-wheel drive version. It first arrived in 1995 with a 3.6 liter twin turbo engine and 424 bhp. It got a nice upgrade in 1998 and power was increased to 450 bhp.
While the GT2 and other special variants were rare, it is worth mentioning the super-rare variants of the model 993, both never officially offered for sale. The Speedster, with a lower profile and custom interior, and the Turbo Cabriolet powered by a single-turbo 3.6L engine boasting 360 hp. Only two Speedsters were built by the factory, the first was a dark green model built in 1995 for Ferdinand Porsche himself in celebration of his 60th anniversary, and the second, a silver model that was originally delivered to actor Jerry Seinfeld as a Targa version and sent back to Porsche-Exclusive to be converted to a Speedster. Fourteen Turbo Cabriolets were built by the factory in 1995 before the introduction of the Turbo coupe and could be purchased for 62% above the cost of a standard model 993 Cabriolet. Interestingly, these Turbo Cabriolet cars got 964 underpinnings and drivetrains.
The 993 Porsche 911 was a strong seller too. In all, almost 70,000 cars were produced from 1994 through 1998. The top seller was the Carrera Coupe with 23,127 units made, followed by the Cabriolet version at 15,499 units. The Carrera 4S sold 6,948 units while the Carrera S sold 3,714 units. The base Turbo sold well at 5,978 units while the Carrera RS was rarer with just over a thousand units sold.
Type 993 Porsche 911 Basics
Type: 993 / Generation: Fourth Generation 911 / Manufacturer: Porsche AG / Production Years: 1994 - 1998 / Model Years: 1994 - 1998 / Designer: Tony Hatter / Body Style: 2-door Coupé, 2-door Roadster, 2-door Targa, 2-door Speedster / Layout: Rear-engine, rear-wheel drive, Rear-engine, all-wheel drive / Engines: 3.6 L–3.8 L air-cooled naturally aspirated/twin-turbocharged M64 SOHC flat-6 / Transmission: 4-speed automatic, 5-speed manual, 6-speed manual / Premiere: 1993 September 9 at IAA Frankfurt motor show / Predecessor: Porsche 964 / Successor: Porsche 996
Porsche 911 (993) Timelines & Details
This graphic breaks out the Type 993 in terms of timelines and how to tell all the models apart. Click on the image to see it in higher definition. There were quite a few regular model cars and plethora of special editions over the years. In 1994 we saw the 80% new Type 993 Carrera (rear wheel drive only) launch with a 272bhp, 3.6-litre, air cooled, flat-6 engine with 6-speed manual gearbox. The Cabriolet version followed soon afterwards. In 1995 we saw the Carrera 4 (all wheel drive) released, the new Carrera option is a 4-speed Tiptronic automatic gearbox. From Feb 1995, the Carrera RS with 300bhp 3.8-litre engine arrives and it is really special. That same year, Porsche gave us the 911 Turbo (993) with a 408 bhp twin turbo 3.6-litre engine. There is even something more special that year in the form of the 430 bhp 993 GT2 limited edition (we see the GT2 again in 1997 and 1998, now with 450 hp). In 1996, the 3.6-litre Carreras all get an engine upgrade, now uprated to 285 bhp and featuring Varioram inlet ducting. We get a new 911 Targa model, introduced with panoramic glass sliding roof. The Carrera 4S features Carrera engine in Turbo bodyshell (including suspension and brakes) and special trims also arrives that year. In 1997, Porsche gives is the Carrera S, which has the wide body look but without Turbo brakes and suspension. In 1998, the Carrera and 4 production are both discontinued. The Carrera S, 4S and Turbo (and including new 430 bhp Turbo S) continue to be made until mid-1998.
Porsche 993 Guide & Details
The introduction of the model 993 marked the last of the model 911 versions powered by the air-cooled Porsche flat-six M64 engine. Every 993 produced was equipped with a derivative of the M64 engine, beginning with the standard 3.6L which pumped out 272 hp and carried the series through 1996 when the 285 hp VarioRam - equipped engine was utilized. There was also a more powerful 3.8L version available as standard in the Carrera RS and as a custom-order option in all other 993 variants. The 3.6L Turbo version was boosted by two turbos and had 408 hp and could be optioned up to 424 hp or 450 hp for the Turbo S and GT2 models.
Naturally Aspirated Engines
All the Porsche 993 Carreras have 3,600 ccm in capacity. The 993 retained the 3.6 L M64/01 engine from the 964 but it was re-designated as M64/05. Bore and stroke are identical to the 964’s engine. In the base coupe it produced 272 hp at 6100 rpm and 243 ft lbs of torque at 5000 rpm, putting the top speed at 171 mph. Porsche got rid of the crankshaft vibration damper, axed old torpedo tube exhaust system in favor of a dual flow system that incorporated two catalytic converters. It also fixed the 964's failure-prone flywheel and ignition distributor making the 993s easier to maintain and more reliable than its predecessor. Valve weights were reduced and valve clearance was now operated by automated hydraulic-tappet valve lifters (a first for a 911) meaning they no longer had to be checked during a service.
In 1996, a second-generation engine was standardized across the lineup; the M64/05 was replaced with the naturally aspirated M63/21. The new engine utilized VarioRam, a modification that changes the tube runner length inside the intake manifold based on engine load and RPM, boosting torque throughout the lower and mid-range. The new Varioram system put power up from 272 to 282 bhp @ 6100 rpm and torque at 251 ft lbs @ 5250 rpm. An optional factory power increase upped capacity by 200 ccm to a 3.8 liters and increased power to 300 hp. The factory power increase was the WLS (X51) package.
Besides the optimized intake, Porsche sorted out some problems of the Porsche 964. The failure prone flywheel was updated, the valve clearance was now operated automatically by more or less maintenance-free hydraulic tappets. Thanks to that, checking valve clearances at the service was no longer a thing, which made inspections more affordable. Another problem, which Porsche solved was related to the ignition distributor, or to be precise, their timing belts, which plagued a lot of 964 owners. Due to all these little tweaks, the 993 Carrera’s engine has a reputation for being more reliable and easier to maintain than its predecessor. Thanks to the hydro tappets, maintenance requirements on the WLS (X51) packaged engines are no higher than for the 3.6-liter.
The RS was the first model to get the second generation M64/21 VarioRam, but it had bigger intake and exhaust valves than the engine that would become standardized. Output was 300 bhp @ 6,500 rpm and 262 ft lbs @ 5400 rpm, on the standard M002 this put top speed at 173 mph and 0-62 at 5 seconds.
An evolution of Mezger’s 964 engine, the 3.6 liter sported twin turbos, intercoolers, and catalytic converters.
Launched in 1995 for the 1996 production year, the Turbo had this gem of an engine. This new twin K16 turbocharged 3.6 liter, 408 hp engine and the superb 993 generation AWD system ensuring all the power made it to the ground. The increased output was helped by air-to-air intercoolers, electronic engine management and redesigned cylinder heads. It was one of the first production cars in the world to feature the OBDII diagnostics system which would later feature as standard on the base 993 models. The even more impressive Turbo S got stiffer suspension and bigger turbos and new exhaust, which took the power up to 450hp.
As the final air-cooled Porsche 911 Engine, it is a magnesium masterpiece cooled by oil and a massive fan pulling air up past the horizontal cylinders. Issues that plagued its predecessors like leaky pushrod tubes and solid tappets. It's final hurrah was being fitted to the GT2. The GT2 was built for homologation for the eponymous GT2 class racing. A more hard-core, race bred, and 200 kg lighter version of the 993 Turbo, the 'GT,' or GT2 as it was more commonly referred got a 424 bhp version of the engine in 1995 and then an upgraded version in 1998 that had 450 bhp @ 5750 rpm. The most extreme version of the engine was saved for the Porsche 911 GT2 Race Evo race car that was built to compete in GT1, it had a scarcely believable 600 bhp and 491 ft lbs of torque.
Chassis revisions were just as extensive as the design and engine updates. A new Porsche-designed six-speed gearbox was used, the rear suspension had been redesigned, and more powerful brakes had been added. The single exhaust pipe was replaced by exhausts both left and right, like the Turbo's have.
On top of easier maintenance, the 993 had a £5,000 lower build cost thanks to new manufacturing techniques, simplified electrics and new materials e.g. vinyl and composites. An all-new modular system was used for the complete wiring harness. Instead of the previous universal system that included the options for every single model variant, the wiring was bespoke to the specific car's options, saving weight and decreasing manufacturing cost.
A major change was the implementation of all alloy multilink rear suspension attached to an alloy subframe, a completely new design derived from the 989, a four-door sedan that never went into production. The system later continued in the 993's successor, the 996, and required the widening of the rear wheel arches, which gave better stability. The new suspension improved handling, making it more direct, more stable, and helping to reduce the tendency to oversteer if the throttle were lifted during hard cornering, a trait of earlier 911s. It also reduced interior noise and improved ride quality.
The 993's optional all-wheel drive system was refined over that of the 964. Porsche departed from the 964's setup consisting of three differentials and revised the system based on the layout from its 959 flagship, replacing the centre differential with a viscous coupling unit. In conjunction with the 993's redesigned suspension, this system improved handling characteristics in inclement weather and still retained the stability offered by all-wheel drive without having to suffer as many compromises as the previous all-wheel drive system. Its simpler layout also reduced weight, though the four-wheel drive Carrera 4 weighs 111 lb (50 kg) more than its rear-wheel drive counterpart (at 3,131 lb (1,420 kg) vs. 3,020 lb (1,370 kg)).
Other improvements over the 964 include a new dual-flow exhaust system, larger brakes with drilled discs, and a revised power steering.
The 993 was the first generation of the 911 to have a six-speed manual transmission included as standard; its predecessors had four- or five-speed transmissions. In virtually every situation, keeping the engine at its best torque range above 4,500 rpm was possible. The Carrera, Carrera S, Cabriolet, and Targa models (rear-wheel drive) were available with a "Tiptronic" four-speed automatic transmission, first introduced in the 964.
From the 1995 model year, Porsche offered the Tiptronic S with additional steering wheel-mounted controls and refined software for smoother, quicker shifts. Since the 993's introduction, the Tiptronic is capable of recognising climbs and descents. The Tiptronic-equipped cars suffer as compared to the manual transmission equipped cars in both acceleration and also top speed, but the differences are not much notable. Tiptronic cars also suffered a 55 lb (25 kg) increase in weight.
For 1997-98, the transmission’s input shaft was revised to handle AWD launches, and the engine computer was able to be reprogrammed for the first time. If you are looking for Porsche 993 Turbo for sale, you should know they are the last air-cooled turbo models. They represent an end of an era in terms of interior and exterior design. The ever-complex entertainment and safety systems of the newer generations have added weight and complexity, so it makes the Porsche 993 transmission a time capsule back to a simpler time. It was the first Porsche to offer a six-speed manual. Sending power to rear or all wheels, it is a bulletproof box with a clutch that is easy and predictable.
Although Porsche had considered an automatic, the Tiptronic 4-speed was the first 4-speed slushbox worthy of handling AWD. A conventional torque converter offered lock up on the highway and a sequential shifter. It made the cars 55 lbs heavier while appealing to a broader audience. Should you buy a Porsche 993 for sale, several aftermarket shops offer conversion kits to retrofit a manual gearbox. If you are looking for a Porsche 911 for sale, the Porsche 993 Turbo Cabriolet is among the most sought-after cars on the market, and that’s why you deserve one.
Porsche 911 Type 993 Specs & Performance Summary
|Full Name||Porsche 911 Carrera Coupe||Porsche 911 Carrera 4 Coupe||Porsche 911 Carrera 4S (993)||Porsche 911 Carrera S (993)||Porsche 911 Turbo (993)||Porsche 911 Turbo S (993)||Porsche 911 Carrera RS 3.8 (993)||Porsche 911 GT2 (993)|
|Model Years||1994 - 1997||1995 - 1997||1996 - 1998||1997 - 1998||1995 - 1998||1997 - 1998||1995 - 1996||1995 - 1996, 1998|
|Engine||3.6 L Aircooled Flat 6||3.6 L Aircooled Flat 6||3.3 L Turbocharged Flat 6||3.3 L Turbocharged Flat 6||3.6 L Turbocharged Flat 6||3.6 L Turbocharged Flat 6||3.75 L Aircooled Flat 6||3.8 L Aircooled Flat 6|
|Engine Capacity (cc)||3600||3600||3299||3299||3600||3600||3746||3600|
|Maximum Power & RPM (HP)||282 bhp @ 6100 rpm||282 bhp @ 6100 rpm||282 bhp @ 6100 rpm||282 bhp @ 6100 rpm||408 bhp @ 5750 rpm||424 bhp @ 5750 rpm||300 bhp @ 6,500 rpm||424 bhp @ 5750 rpm|
|Maximum Torque (ft lbs)||251 ft lbs @ 5250 rpm||251 ft lbs @ 5250 rpm||251 ft lbs @ 5250 rpm||251 ft lbs @ 5250 rpm||398 ft lbs @ 4500 rpm||400 ft lbs @ 4500 rpm||262 ft lbs @ 5400 rpm||400 ft lbs @ 4500 rpm|
|0-60 mph (seconds)||5.4 seconds||5.2 seconds||5.2 seconds||5.3 seconds||4.4 seconds||3.6 seconds||4.7 seconds||3.9 seconds|
|1/4 Mile (seconds)||-||-||-||-||-||-||13.2 seconds||12.1 seconds|
|Top Speed (mph)||171 mph||171 mph||168 mph||171 mph||180 mph||184 mph||172 mph||186 mph|
|Weight (lbs)||3020 lbs||3131 lbs||3,197 lbs||3,064 lbs||3,307 lbs||3,307 lbs||2,800 lbs||2,536 lbs|
|Height (mm)||1,315 mm||1,315 mm||1,315 mm||1,315 mm||1,315 mm||1,315 mm||1,315 mm||1,315 mm|
|Ground Clearance (mm)||120 mm||120 mm||120 mm||120 mm||130 mm||130 mm||130 mm||130 mm|
|Length (mm)||4,260 mm||4,260 mm||4,260 mm||4,260 mm||4,260 mm||4,260 mm||4,260 mm||4,260 mm|
|Wheelbase (mm)||2,272 mm||2,272 mm||2,272 mm||2,272 mm||2,272 mm||2,272 mm||2,272 mm||2,272 mm|
|Width (mm)||1,735 mm||1,735 mm||1,795 mm||1,795 mm||1,795 mm||1,795 mm||1,795 mm||1,795 mm|
Porsche 911 Carrera Coupe:
Porsche 911 Carrera 4 Coupe:
Porsche 911 Carrera 4S (993):
Porsche 911 Carrera S (993):
Porsche 911 Turbo (993):
Porsche 911 Turbo S (993):
Porsche 911 Carrera RS 3.8 (993):
Porsche 911 GT2 (993):
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